Pro's and Con's of Buying a New or Used Auto Engine

Does your car or truck part give you trouble in performance? Is it tough to get easily their replacement parts in the market? Well in that case you might have already weighed the options of going for a brand new engine. So how do you really decide between the thrill of buying a new auto and economizing on an old one? There is no definite answer for this question but going for a used auto engine might still be a cheaper option even if you buy a discounted new car. Having said this you should always keep in mind, some important factors on any engine new or used usually have, like-

Depreciation Value, usually the highest cost involved

Maintenance and repair

Your interest on loan

Insurance

Fuel consumption

You can easily make an accurate estimate of these costs for any auto engine on your own or with the help of the vast resources on the net. Once this is done all you need to do is to keep the following checklist handy to guide you through your purchase-

New engine Pro's

Comes under warranty

Well Maintained

You can pick the exact color and options you want

New engine Con's

High depreciation cost involved

Taxes and insurance is higher

Have to deal with salesperson

Used engine Pro's

Lower purchase price

Insurance and tax rate are less

Depreciation is flatter

Used Engine Con's

Low reliability previous owner might be getting rid of it

High maintenance

Recently it has been seen that a nationwide network of online automated stores have popularized the sale and purchase of used auto engine / parts. Since there is no middleman involved therefore these online firms offer the customers all their products at ware house prices. If you go with this option you will not only save money but also time. Here, now you need not run around the market dealing with temporary salespeople to fix your automobile. So the conclusion is that you should go for the new car only when you have a good budget else simply replace your auto engine with some used engine offered in the market in a good quality.

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The History of Automotive Repairs – Why We Need Trained Technicians in the Collision Repair Industry

Vehicle History Overview

  • They don’t make them like they used to.

The First Cars

  • The first motor cars were nothing more than a buggy and engine (Generally repaired by blacksmiths and carpenters. These cars were very expensive, which only the wealthy could afford)
  • Model T was the first car mass production on an assembly line in 1908 (Ford’s Vision was to produce an affordable car the average person could purchase)
  • Model T’s came in black only to keep the costs down. (The price came down once the assembly line was streamlined, but in 1908, the cost for a Model T started at $825. By 1913 the cost of the car reduced to $550)

Cars in the 1960s

Cars were made the same basic way up through the 60s

  • Body Over Frame
  • Rear Wheel Drive (Same concept, but the cars were very big, bulky, and heavy)

Except people in the 60s wanted SPEED! They achieved this with Big Block Motors, which created a lot of Horsepower. (The Birth of Hotrods, Rat Fink, Flames, and Pin Striping).

Cars in the 1970s

  • The government place strict fuel economy and emissions control laws
  • Customers demanded cars with increased fuel economy
  • New laws and customer demands started the automotive explosion of engineering ideas and changes in the automotive industry

Changes to comply with Demands and Laws

  • Smaller bodied cars and smaller engines
  • Aerodynamics (Increase Fuel Mileage)
  • Lighter cars by using different materials and designs
  • More work-hardened areas created during formation of panel (Body Lines)
  • Safety

Construction of Interstate Highways + Higher Speed Limits + More High Performance Cars = Accidents and More

Deaths from Auto Accidents

Federal Laws were passed to regulate safety. These laws included:

  • Installation of seatbelts
  • Safety glass windshields
  • Head restraints
  • In 1979, the first driver side airbag was introduced
  • Airbags are mandatory in motor cars produced after 1990
  • Unibody Torque Boxes: Allow controlled twisting and crushing
  • Crush Zones: Made to collapse during collision (To act as an absorber, absorbing the impact)

Modern Day Cars

  • Carbon Fiber Parts
  • Aluminum Parts
  • More Plastic Parts
  • High Strength Steel
  • Boron Steel
  • Unibody Construction
  • Space Frame Construction
  • Computer
  • Hybrid Cars

Now they even have cars that will tell you when you’re lost, where to turn, Parallel Park for you.

Conclusion

While the modern day cars appear to be made cheap and unsafe, they are actually designed to crush or collapse, while transferring the energy around the stronger passenger compartment to protect the passengers from injury.

There is considerably more damage to modern day cars during a collision than the older vehicles, which gives the perception that “they don’t make them like they used to”. However, in reality the cars are taking the impact instead of the passengers.

The lesson was designed to give you a little history, but to also emphasize that just a hammer, dolly and a few wrenches are not going to repair today’s cars. We need highly trained collision repair and automotive technicians to repair today’s vehicles.

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Drag Racing – The Perfect Launch

Drag racing, a contest between two cars beginning from a complete stop over a distance of a 1/4 mile (1320 feet) depends heavily on first 60 feet of the race, or the launch. The technique used for launching varies widely depending on the how the car is equipped. The type of transmission, which wheels are being driven, tires, power, suspension and track preparation all play key roles in how to go about getting the best launch possible from the car.

Improvements on the time it takes for the car to travel the first 60 feet down the track have significant implications on the final ET (estimated time). As a general rule, improvements in the 60 foot time, are magnified by 2x on your final ET. For example, a Dodge Viper GTS that runs a 12.2 @ 120 MPH in the 1/4 mile with a 60 foot time of 2.0 can make significant improvements to it's 1/4 mile times by obtaining a better launch. If the Dodge Viper GTS is able cut 2. (two tenths) of a second off it it's 60 foot time, by covering the first 60 feet in 1.8 seconds, it's final ET for the 1/4 mile would be around 11.8 @ 119 – 121MPH. More examples can be found by searching through the thousands of 60 foot records in the http://www.dragtimes.com drag racing database.

The best possible launch is obtained by obtaining the optimal balance of applying the most amount of power to the ground with the least amount of wheel spin. If too much power is applied during the launch and the tires spin, the resulting 60 foot time will be poor. The same goes for not applying enough power, thereby causing the car's engine to bog, and having the car limp off the line slowly.

When launching a car with an automatic transmission, a technique called power braking is used. After properly staging the car at the drag strip's staging lane, tightly hold down the brake with one foot, while slowly applying the accelerator paddle with the other foot. The car's engine RPM (revolutions per minute) should slowly increase to a point where the car will either start to move or start spinning the tires. Hold down both the brake and accelerator peddles just below the point where the car is starting to move or spinning the tires. When the Christmas tree lights reach the last amber light before the green, lift off of the brake and slowly push the gas peddle all the way down. The correct RPM to launch at will be different every car depending on all of the variables mentioned earlier. Start conservative with the first launch and keep increasing the RPM at which the car is launched at during the consequent runs. If the car starts spinning the tires after the launch, lower the launch RPM and try again.

When launching a car with a manual transmission come to a complete stop after the car is properly staged. Press the clutch in all the way with one foot while pressing the accelerator paddle down with the other foot, raising the engine RPM to a constant moderate level for the first launch. Lift up on the clutch paddle to the point where the car is just about to start moving and hold both peddles still. When the Christmas tree lights reach the last amber before the green, slowly release the clutch while quickly applying the accelerator peddle enough to launch the car quickly, but not too much to admit a large amount of wheel spin. Start conservative with the first launch and keep increasing the RPM at which the car is launched at during the consequent runs. If the car starts spinning the tires too much after the launch, lower the launch RPM and try again.

To obtain better launches and bring down 60 foot times even more, the use of drag radial or full slick tires can be used on more powerful cars that have trouble launching at any RPM on regular street tires. Drag radials and full slicks typically require a burnout to heat up the tires and clean them from debris for optimum performance. A burnout is a rapid spinning of the car's tires while the car stays relatively still.

All wheel drive cars (AWD) are typically the easiest to launch because the engine's power is distributed to 4 wheels instead of two. Rear wheel drive (RWD) cars typically launch better than front wheel drive (FWD) due to the transfer of weight to the rear tires during the launch, causing an increase in Traction. If the car has aftermarket adjustable suspension, adjustments can be made specific for drag racing to increase the weight transfer to the driving wheels.

The track's launch pad preparation also plays an important role in how well and how hard cars can launch. The launch area is usually prepped with traction compounds to add to the stickiness of the track. A well prepped track will definitely help drop 60 foot times and result in lower 1/4 mile times.

During the breaks and cool down periods between drag racing runs, make detailed notes about how you launched on the back of each timeslip. These notes can help you diagnoseose launching issues, fine-tune outstanding launches and show improvements in the search for The Perfect Launch.

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What Is The Importance Of Conveyors?

A conveyor system is a device which is used to move bulky materials from one place to another. Conveyors are really important in transporting heavy and large materials and packages. They are very effective and efficient which makes them usable in almost all industries that require material handling. There are several types of conveying systems which suit the different requirements of various industries.

Among the numerous advantages a conveyor system provides the following:

• They efficiently and quickly transport materials from one place to another.
• Correctly engineered systems have reliable safety measures to avoid accidents and could be installed anyplace.
• They can transport almost any load whatever the size or shape.
• A wide range of conveyor systems are available depending on the application.

Belt conveyors or conveyor belts are the widely utilized for their versatility, and they are least costly. Products are delivered on the belt so even irregular-shaped packages, whatever the size and weight, are effectively transported. These are used to transport products in a straight line or irregular elevations. Conveyor belts are usually made of PVC or similar materials. They are more commonly utilized to transport items with irregular bottom shapes or surfaces.

Conveyors are widely used in manufacturing and warehousing, handling bulk material. They're even used in the automation of different manufacturing procedures. Industries include electronics, automotive, agricultural, food processing, canning, bottling, pharmaceuticals, furniture, scrap metals, and packaging. Conveyor systems are even regularly used in sorting by postal and freight companies and for air-port baggage handling.

As a conveyor is extremely important in a company to efficiently increase its production in an extremely judicious manner, it is considered the lifeline of their business. Proper maintenance is therefore an important need to insure its high performance rating. It requires frequent inspection and monitoring of motors, availability of key parts, and proper training of maintenance personnel.

Picking the proper conveyor type and system design is extremely important to ensure it works as envisioned. An accurate selection of a suitable conveyor system is therefore important. Things just like shape, weight and material of the conveyed products need to be considered. Proper maintenance would increase the service life of your conveyor system.

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Calculating Car Workshop Labour Efficiency

The clock is ticking

‘Time is money’ in bodyshops and service workshops. Essentially, these operations buy and sell the time of panel beaters, painters and technicians. A service workshop, for example, might buy one hour from a technician for £10 and sell it to a customer for £40, and make a profit of £30. (These figures are, of course, notional).

Buying and selling the time of productives is, or should be, the major source of revenue and profit in bodyshops and service workshops. Profits from the sale of spare parts; oils and lubricants; paint and materials; and sublet and sundry are all subsidiary to the buying and selling of productives’ time. If you don’t sell time, you don’t sell any of these other things.

Just as you would take great care when buying and selling a spare part, you have to pay equal attention to buying and selling productives’ time – or even more so, because you cannot ‘stock’ productives’ time. In other words, if you don’t sell their time today, you cannot sell it tomorrow.

Time for sale

So once time is gone it’s gone, whereas a spare part will still be in stock. So it is a good idea to know how much time you have for sale. This would seem pretty simple. If you have six productives, and they are there eight hours every day, surely you have 48 hours for sale? Well, no, you don’t.

For a start, productives might be in the workshop for eight hours every day, but they don’t work on paying jobs for eight solid hours. For example, a customer could come back with a car that you serviced yesterday and complain that it keeps stalling. It will then be necessary for a productive to rectify the problem, and of course you cannot charge the customer for that. If it takes two hours, then you only have 46 hours left to sell, in our example.

Time sold

To complicate things further, you can actually end up selling more than 48 hours. Imagine, for instance, that a vehicle manufacturer’s standard time for a major service is two hours and you quote the customer on this basis. If your technician completes the service in one hour (unlikely, we know) then you will still charge the customer for two hours.

If this happened all day long, you could sell 96 hours less the four hours you could have sold if one of your technicians hadn’t spent two hours spent rectifying the engine stalling problem. (It’s four hours because you are selling two hours for every hour worked in this example.) So if your productives could halve the standard times all day, that’s 92 hours sold rather than 48 hours.

Three measures of time

What we are talking about here is the three kinds of time available in a bodyshop or service workshop:

Attended time – this is the time that panel beaters, painters or technicians are in the workplace available to work.

Work time – this is the time they spend actually working on jobs that, at the end of the day, a customer pays for. Clearly ‘work time’ does not include any time spent rectifying problems, or anything else they do that does not have a paying customer at the end.

Sold time – this is the time that you charge customers for. It could be the time quoted on an estimate for an insurance company, or a menu-priced service.

You could say that ‘attended time’ and ‘work time’ are both ‘real’, because you can almost see them. You can see when a productive is in the workshop, and you can see a productive working on paying jobs. What’s more, you can measure ‘attended time’ and ‘work time’ using a clock.

On the other hand, ‘sold time’ is not ‘real’. You can’t see it, and you can’t measure it using a clock. But at the end of every day you can add up all the time you have sold to customers from your job cards or invoices.

How fast and how long

If you measure attended time and work time, and add up sold time at the end of the day, you can then see how fast and how long your productives have worked during the day.

How fast they have worked is sold hours divided by work hours. In our example, that’s 92 hours sold compared to 46 hours worked, or 200% expressed as a percentage. That is, your productives are working twice as fast as the standard time.

How long they have worked is work hours divided by attended hours. In our example that’s 46 hours compared to 48 hours, or 95.8% expressed as a percentage. That is, your productives were working on paying jobs for 95.8% of the time.

Labour efficiency

What we have just worked out as percentages are two ‘labour efficiencies’:

Productive efficiency tells you how fast productives are working compared to standard times, or the estimate in the case of a body repair job – how many sold hours they produced compared to the work time it took them to produce these sold hours.

Labour utilisation (sometimes called ‘selling efficiency’) tells you how long productives worked on paying jobs compared to the time they attended the workplace.

As formulae, productive efficiency and labour utilisation are calculated like this:

Productive efficiency = (Sold Hours/ Work Hours) x 100%

Labour utilisation = (Work Hours/Attended Hours) x 100%

Overall labour efficiency

There is one other measure of labour efficiency and that’s called overall efficiency. This is a simple combination of productive efficiency and labour utilisation, and comes from multiplying them together:

Overall Efficiency = Productive Efficiency x Labour Utilisation

Or, another way of looking at overall efficiency is as sold hours divided by attended hours:

Overall efficiency = (Sold Hours/Attended Hours) x 100%

How labour efficiency affects profit

Obviously you will make more profit if you can squeeze more sold hours from the hours your productives attend. We have already said that if you buy one hour from a service workshop technician for £10 and sell it to a customer for £40 you will make a profit of £30. But if you bought one hour from the technician and then sold two hours, you will make much more profit – £70.

It is equally obvious that if you buy one hour from a service workshop technician for £10, and then the whole hour is expended rectifying a come-back job for which you can make no charge, you have lost £10. Less obvious is that you have lost the opportunity to sell two hours (in our example), and thus lost the opportunity to make a profit of £70.

So the reason for measuring time in a workshop, and then calculating the labour efficiencies, is very clear. It’s all about profit. And if you don’t measure time and calculate the labour efficiencies, it is absolutely certain you will not maximise profitability because you will not know:

How fast your productives are working as a team and individually, and whether they could work faster if they were better trained or had better equipment

How long your productives are working as a team and individually, and how much time they are wasting on work that customers aren’t paying for.

How time is measured

The most basic way of measuring time in a workshop is by using a ‘clock’ which stamps time on a ‘clock card’ for attended time and on the job card for work time. The times are then correlated manually on a ‘daily operating control’ sheet, and the labour efficiencies calculated.

However, computers have largely superseded this basic method, with the ‘clocking’ carried out using barcodes or magnetic swipe cards. The computer then completes all the correlations and calculations instantly.

Typical labour efficiencies for the Top 25%

In recent years, the labour efficiencies achieved by bodyshops and service workshops have fallen from what would have been considered the ‘norm’ a decade ago. The reasons for this are complex. However the top 25% of franchised dealer bodyshops and service workshops are still achieving reasonable levels of performance, typically:

For a bodyshop, productive efficiency averages 106%, utilisation 88% and therefore overall efficiency is 93.3% (106% x 88%)

For a service workshop, productive efficiency averages 115%, utilisation 92% and therefore overall efficiency is 105.8% (115% x 92%)

For 40-hour attended by a productive in a week, these translate as:

For a bodyshop – 40 hours attended, 35.2 hours working on paying jobs, and 37.3 hours sold or invoiced to customers

For a service workshop – 40 hours attended, 36.8 hours working on paying jobs, and 42.3 hours sold or invoiced to customers.

Why service workshops are usually more labour-efficient than bodyshops

bodyshops are clearly less efficient, but why? Firstly, jobs move between productives in a bodyshop – starting with strip, then panel, then preparation, paint, refit and valeting. Usually this means moving the vehicle physically around the bodyshop, which is far less efficient than the straight in a bay, job done and straight out situation of a service workshop. The result for bodyshops is a lower labour utilisation than for a service workshop.

Productive efficiency in bodyshops used to be higher than for service workshops, because sold hours were negotiated with insurance assessors – so-called ‘opinion times’. A bodyshop might get 20 hours for a job and the productives would finish it in 15 work hours, achieving a productive efficiency of 133%. Nowadays, the times in a bodyshop are set by computerised estimating systems with virtually no room for negotiation or ‘opinion times’.

service workshops, like bodyshops, have seen standard times fall, too. But their customer base is millions of motorists rather than a dozen insurance companies, so service managers can set whatever times they want – within reason, and of course, subject to competition.

Lost time

Obviously it would be great if you could get away with just paying technicians when they are working on paying jobs, but you can’t. What you actually pay them for is attendance, or ‘attended time’, and they don’t ‘work’ on paying jobs all the time they are attending.

The difference between attended time and work time is ‘lost time’, which is also called non-productive time – the few hours every week that technicians are paid for when they are not working on paying jobs. Three common things that make up lost time are rectification of faulty work (‘come-backs’), collection and delivery of cars, and cleaning and maintenance.

In addition to paying for lost time, you might pay bonus and overtime, and you pay for technicians’ holidays, sick leave and training. Then there is the employer’s contribution to National Insurance, and the cost of any perks technicians receive such as pension or health insurance contributions.

It’s tempting to throw all of these payments into the cost of buying the technician’s time in our example and calculate what you might see as the ‘real’ profit. If you did, the cost of buying the hour would probably be around £13, and therefore the profit falls to £27.

Accounting for time

The facts presented so far would seem to make calculating the profit when buying and selling technicians’ time quite simple. Apparently all you have to do for any period – a day, a week, a month or a year – is add up all your labour sales and subtract all your technicians’ costs (including basic, bonus, overtime, holidays, sick, training, perks and National Insurance) to arrive at your profit on labour.

You can, but it is far better to identify all your technicians’ costs separately in your management accounts, because you can then see how much you are paying them for not working. And by separating these payments to technicians, you can look more closely at the effects of labour efficiency on your operation, whether it is mechanical servicing and repair or body repairs.

The following example shows the traditional format for the management accounts of a service workshop or bodyshop. Here we have taken the results for one technician over 12 months, assuming basic pay of £12 per hour and hours sold out at an average of £60 per hour. Additionally, we have assumed that the technician attends 44 weeks per annum and 40 hours per week, working 37 of those hours with lost time of 3 hours. As a result of the technician’s efforts, the workshop sells 42 hours per week (or 1,848 sold hours per annum from 44 weeks x 42 hours), and this is achieved without any overtime or bonus pay.

Management accounts

Labour sales 1,848 hours sold @ £60 = £110,880

Less Technician’s pay for 1,628 work hours @ £12 = £19,536

Technician’s bonus pay (all bonus pay entered if earned) = NIL

Technician’s overtime pay (all overtime entered if earned) = NIL

Gross profit on labour sales (Labour gross profit) = £91,344

Direct expenses

Technician’s pay for 132 hours of lost time @ £12 = £1,584

Technician’s pay for hols, sick & training (40 days of 8 hours) @ £12 = £3,840

Technician’s National Insurance and perks = £3,744

Direct profit on labour sales = £82,176

Labour gross profit

In this traditional form of management accounts, then, the cost of the technician is divided up into no less than six lines. The first three lines appear straight after labour sales, and consist of all pay made to the technician for actually producing work that is then sold to a customer. This includes pay for ‘work time’, and all bonus and overtime pay. Accountants call these the ‘cost of sales’.

By subtracting these three lines from sales, you end up with the gross profit made from buying and selling the technician’s time – usually called the ‘labour gross profit’. The labour gross profit is often expressed as a percentage of labour sales, which in this example comes to 82% (£91,344 divided by £110,880 expressed as a percentage).

The remaining three lines appear in the direct expenses section of management accounts along with the cost of non-productive salaries, apprentices, consumables, courtesy cars, advertising, etc. The idea, as we have said, is to identify what you pay technicians for not working. In this example, the total cost of the technician is £28,704 per annum, and £9,168 is for not working. That is nearly one-third, and a far from unusual proportion!

Dividing up the technician’s pay

The way some of the technician’s pay is divided up is self-evident – bonus, overtime, holidays etc, and National Insurance and perks. That just leaves the technician’s basic pay, which is divided up according to ‘work time’ and ‘lost time’:

In our example we know the technician attends 40 hours each week and works 37 of these hours, which means that the technician works for 1,628 hours in a year (37 hours x 44 weeks), which at £12 per hour is £19,536.

That leaves three hours of lost time each week, or 132 hours per annum (3 hours x 44 weeks), or £1,584 at £12 per hour.

In fact, this split corresponds to one of the measures of efficiency we discussed earlier – labour utilisation. Labour utilisation is ‘work hours’ divided by ‘attended hours’ expressed as a percentage, or 92.5% in this case (37 hours divided by 40 hours). The split in the management accounts allocates 92.5% of basic pay as the cost of doing the work. The remainder (7.5% of basic pay) – corresponding to the technician’s pay for lost time – is allocated as an expense.

It should now be clear that labour utilisation has a direct bearing on how much gross profit is effectively produced from selling the technician’s time, and what is paid to the technician for not working.

Calculating labour sales

In our example, the workshop sells 42 hours per week as a result of the 37 hours the technician actually works out of the 40 hours attended. We have already seen that the labour utilisation here is 92.5% (37 hours divided by 40 hours). The productive efficiency can also be calculated as 113.5% (42 sold hours divided by 37 work hours), and the overall efficiency is 105% (42 sold hours divided by 40 attended hours). All these formulae were covered earlier.

The labour sales in our example are calculated by multiplying the sold hours in a year (1,848 hours) by the labour rate of £60 per hour. In full, this calculation is as follows:

Annual labour sales = 1 technician x 40 attended hours per week x 44 weeks attended per year x 105% overall efficiency x £60 per hour labour rate = £110,880

Increased productive efficiency

Now we can have a look at what happens to the profit on labour sales if labour efficiency increases. Let’s say our technician still works 37 hours out of 40 hours attended, but works faster (i.e. is more productive) and achieves 43 sold hours. The utilisation is still 92.5% (37 work hours divided by 40 attended hours), but the productive efficiency has increased to 116.2% (43 sold hours divided by 37 work hours) and the overall efficiency has also increased to 107.5% (43 sold hours divided by 40 attended hours). The effect is as follows (and we have assumed again that bonus and overtime are ‘nil’):

Labour sales

1 tech x 40 att. hours x 44 weeks x 107.5% overall efficiency x £60 per hour = £113,520

Less

1 tech x 40 att. hours x 44 weeks x 92.5% utilisation x £12 per hour = £19,536

Gross profit on labour sales (Labour gross profit) £93,984

Direct expenses

1 tech x 40 att. hours x 44 weeks x 7.5% lost time x £12 per hour = £1,584

Technician’s pay for hols, sick & training (40 days of 8 hours) @ £12 = £3,840

Technician’s National Insurance and perks = £3,744

Direct profit on labour sales £84,816

A small increase in productive efficiency – just about three percentage points – has resulted in an extra annual profit on labour of £2,640.

Improving labour utilisation and productive efficiency

So far, we have explained how to measure time in a service or body repair workshop, how labour efficiency is calculated, and how management accounts are designed to highlight the sources of labour profit. We have shown how productive efficiency affects profitability. Next, we look at the effects on profit of improving labour utilisation, and then both productive efficiency and labour utilisation at the same time.

Increased labour utilisation

Taking the same example discussed earlier, let’s improve labour utilisation by assuming that our technician manages to work 38 hours out of 40 hours attended instead of 37, while leaving the productive efficiency the same (113.5%) as in the original example. This means that utilisation goes up to 95% (38 work hours divided by 40 attended hours), and even if the productive efficiency is the same at 113.5%, then our technician will produce 43.1 sold hours (38 hours worked x 113.5%). That is, the technician’s overall efficiency has increased to 107.8% (43.1 sold hours divided by 40 attended hours).

The effect on labour profits is then:

Labour sales

1 tech x 40 att. hours x 44 weeks x 107.8% overall efficiency x £60 per hour = £113,520

Less

1 tech x 40 att. hours x 44 weeks x 95% utilisation x £12 per hour = £20,064 Gross profit on labour sales (Labour gross profit) = £93,456

Direct expenses

1 tech x 40 att. hours x 44 weeks x 5% lost time x £12 per hour = £1,056

Technician’s pay for hols, sick & training (40 days of 8 hours) @ £12 = £3,840

Technician’s National Insurance and perks = £3,744

Direct profit on labour sales = £84,816

The improvement, from one extra hour worked per week, is £2,640 in a year.

Do both!

But what would happen if both utilisation and productive efficiency improved at the same time? That is, the technician still attends 40 hours, but works 38 hours at the improved productive efficiency of 116.2% (from Part 2) thereby producing 44.2 sold hours (38 work hours x 116.2%) and hence an overall efficiency of 110.5% (44.2 sold hours divided by 40 attended hours). The calculation looks like this:

Labour sales

1 tech x 40 att. hours x 44 weeks x 110.5% overall efficiency x £60 per hour = £116,688

Less

1 tech x 40 att. hours x 44 weeks x 95% utilisation x £12 per hour = £20,064

Gross profit on labour sales (Labour gross profit) = £96,624

Direct expenses

1 tech x 40 att. hours x 44 weeks x 5% lost time x £12 per hour = £1,056

Technician’s pay for hols, sick & training (40 days of 8 hours) @ £12 = £3,840

Technician’s National Insurance and perks = £3,744

Direct profit on labour sales = £87,984

The improvement is £5,808, multiplied by (say) seven technicians is a sizeable £40,656 extra profit per annum.

This shows how significant for profitability only relatively small increases in labour efficiency can be. However, labour profits can also fall just as significantly if labour efficiency falls by an equally small amount.

Hidden lost time

If small improvements in labour efficiency translate into big improvements in labour profits, but any slight reduction means big falls in profit, then you need to know what levers to pull to make sure you are on the side of big profits. So what’s the secret? Or is it about managing the minutiae?

There’s no secret. The trick is managing every aspect of a workshop. Managers have to do everything they can to make sure technicians, panel beaters or painters are working as fast as possible for as long as possible. In other words, you must do everything to minimise lost time, and provide your productive staff with every means to support faster working like training, power tools… and even placing certain jobs with productives who are the most experienced. If you have a clutch job, then give it to the clutch expert.

But there is one secret worth knowing, and that’s ‘hidden lost time’.

As we have shown, lost time is a killer. But then lost time, if it’s measured at all, is usually about the most obvious elements such as rectification of faulty work, collection and delivery of cars, and cleaning and maintenance. However, there is a lot more lost time hidden away within jobs. Technicians may seem to be working hard, but too often they may be waiting for spare parts at the back counter of the stores. Or a technician may be waiting in line to use a piece of equipment like a wheel alignment rig.

The outcome of ‘hidden lost time’ is a fall in productive efficiency, but labour utilisation is unaffected because you haven’t measured the losses. But, as you have seen, the effect on profits can be huge. So apart from attending to the obvious and direct influences on labour efficiency, which affect how fast technicians work (productive efficiency) and how long (utilisation), workshop managers must also attend to anything that can slow them down when they are supposed to be working.

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Mazda RX8 Horsepower Controversy

Since its launch, the Mazda RX8 has been the subject of close scrutiny by enthusiasts. The high level of attention is not only due to the car's admirable driving dynamics but, in part to the early reports of below-than-expected performance. To be more specific: wheel horsepower measured on several chassis dynamometer runs directed in values ​​well below the expected 17% ~ 20% drivetrain parasitic losses. And quarter mile runs of anywhere between 0.5 and 1.5 seconds off of those produced by magazines on allegly pre-production vehicles.

In connection with the RX8's horsepower rating: the original marketing material from Mazda North America (MNAO) advertised the 6 speed manual transmission RX8 at 247hp @ 8,500rpm. Assuming parasitic drivetrain loses between 17% -20% -common for modern rear wheel drive vehicles, a stock RX8 should measure between 205 ~ 197 horsepower at the rear wheels (rwhp) -depending on elevation, barometric pressure, temperature and correction factors applied. Instead, a stock RX8 chassis dyno run shows results ranged anywhere from mid-high ~ 160 to ~ 185rwhp. Such readings would represent parasitic drivetrain loses in excess of 25%. To say that, it is unacceptable to experience such a high level of loss through the drivetrain of a "sports car" with a carbon fiber drive shaft -amongst other things- is an understatement.

To further consolidate doubts about the actual power output of the new Renesis, several owners were unable to reproduce mid-low 14 second quarter mile passes -as seen published by well known US car magazines. Low trap speeds were another hint towards the absence of power output.

Shortly after, several debates on online enthusiast forums and discussion boards turned into heated arguments as to what was causing such poor "straight line performance." Many former Miata owners remembered a previous "snafu" in Mazda's history, when the manufacturer advisedly overstated the horsepower figures of their redesigned Mazda Miata.

After a few months, MNAO came forward and explained that they had misrepresented the Renesis' power output. The revised figure was now 238hp @ 8,500rpm; However, according to MNAO, this revision did not change the previously achieved track performance results.

Speculations about the reasons behind the sudden lack of power output were many. However, there are currently two schools of thought:

  • The first one supports the idea that the RX-8's engine management unit (ECU), in conjunction with the many "nanny" devices -such as ABS & TCS- do not allow to obtain accurate readings from a chassis dynamometer. To simplify, when the car is run on a chassis dyno, only the driven wheels are turning. The RX-8's ECU would detect an abnormal driving situation and retard timing and apply other safety measures to preserve either the "driver" or the "engine" -or both- from damage (read: skidding situation, or a car going out of the Road.)
  • The second one believes that MNAO was forced to re-engineer the software that runs the engine management even before the first batch of RX-8's reached US shores, due to upcoming Federal emissions regulations. I have read of one in particular, which requires catalytic converter lifespan of ~ 100,000 miles. The enemy number one of statistical converters on any vehicle is heat (and heat is the number one attribute of rotary engine's exhaust gases.)

MNAO offered two options to those who had pre-ordered an RX-8, or had purchased no later than September 2003:

  • They would buy back the vehicle, no questions asked.
  • They would offer FREE Scheduled Maintenance for the life of the warranty, plus a 500 dollar "gift card" to those who opted to keep the car.

I was amongst those who opted to keep their RX-8. After all, the driving experience had not changed since test driving the vehicle prior to purchasing it. Since August 2003 I have clocked well over 20,000 miles -as of 1/18 / 2005- and I have but one ounce of regret about my decision. If you'd like to read more about owners' opinions, visit this thread @ RX8Club.com

There have been a number of ECU "updates" released during the past 2 years. To the best of my knowledge, all early samples of '04 RX-8s, came from port with level "J" of engine management software. Since then, we have escalated all the way through the alphabet to "M" -which was released on a TSB campaign by Mazda North America (MSP04) in order to have ALL vehicles taken in for Service @ Authorized Dealers flashed to "M" calibration .

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How Goods Transportation Has Evolved Over the Years

From ancient times goods have been transported from the countryside to big cities and towns and vice versa. Goods also have been traded with neighboring and distant countries. The best example is the ancient Silk Route. The Silk route made use of different modes of transportation according to the region. While in some places camels were used to transport goods in the form of caravans, in coastal areas ships were the preferred mode of transportation.

Goods transportation, a boost to the global economy

Transportation of goods is a broad term which includes several kinds of activities and modes of transportation. Moving raw materials from mines or forest areas to factories, transporting the finished goods to markets, distribution of goods to various consumer centers worldwide are just some of the activities that come under the category.

Another example that can be stated is that of agricultural produce transported to a food processing unit. The processed goods are then stored in a warehouse to be transported to distribution centers.

The mode of transport used in this process would vary widely according to the volume of goods to be moved, the urgency and the geographical topography of the region. Today goods are transported using various modes of transport giving rise to transport corridors. Transport corridors along with favorable customs and tariff duties have boosted trade in different parts of the world.

Efficient transportation of goods is based upon

  • The Infrastructure
  • Vehicles or mode of transportation
  • Operations and administration
  • Energy or fuel supply and consumption

The different modes for goods transportation

Roadways

Road Transportation (Roadways) is the oldest means of transport used for moving goods. Whether in the form of caravan trails or paved paths, roads have been used extensively in the past. The automobile revolutionized road transport and today freight trucks, wagons and trailers carry large volumes of goods across highways.

Also with improved methods of lying roads using material like concrete and tarmac, roads are now much more durable. Further advances in civil engineering have meant that bridges can be built across water bodies facilitating movement of goods across regions separated by rivers.

Marine transportation

Maritime transportation has always been an important mode to transport goods across countries and continents. Consuming less energy as compared to roadways or rail, cargo ships can carry thousands of tons of freight in a single trip from one port to another.

With the advent of containerization, goods can now be easily transported using ships which can be unloaded at ports and then transported via rail to inland markets.

Railways

After the Industrial Revolution, rail transport began to be extensively used for moving goods. Rail technology has improved considerably over the years. Today diesel-electric locomotives haul large quantities of freight in most parts of the world.

High speed rail transport has proved to be efficient in transporting goods over large distances in countries like the United States, Russia and China and in Europe.

Airways

The use of aircraft in transporting cargo has generally been limited to areas where urgency is the primary need. Large airfreight carriers like the Boeing 707 and 727 can transport significant amounts of cargo at a time.

However the cost of transportation and limitation in the volume of goods that can be transferred at a time has prevented large scale use of aircraft in goods movement.

Planning is crucial

While Goods Movement, Transportation has an obvious impact on the economic sphere it also has a visible effect on the environment. Planning is vital to manage the various factors involved. A well planned transport system would make optimum use of available facilities and ensure a streamlined and eco-friendly transportation process at lesser costs.

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What Is an AGO Oil Product or Automatic Gas Oil? Finding Authentic AGO Petroleum Supply/Supplier

A recent survey conducted by this writer on the Internet for a quick, snap shot sense of the subject matter, immediately revealed that there’s a state of relatively scanty knowledge of, or information about, this particular refined petroleum product called the AGO, among international oil dealers and suppliers. In deed, in one rather remarkable instance involving a popular ‘Ask for Answers’ online discussion portal, one reader expressly posited the question, soliciting information from the readers as to what is/was ‘the meaning’ of the petroleum term AGO, among three other refined petroleum products, which he went on to list – DPK, PMS, JET A1. There was just one response – a response that has stood the same for 5 years since. Oddly enough, however, of the 4 oil products that the answerer named, the answerer was exactly accurate in the definition he proffered on three of those. But, on ONLY one of them, the AGO product, the answer given by the answerer was somewhat slightly off, as he gave the definition of the product as meaning ‘Automotive Gas & Oils.’

So, first, we start with this basic question: What is AGO Oil Product, or the Automotive Gas Oil?

What the AGO Oil Product Is

The term AGO, which specifically stands for the Automotive Gas Oil, is the name given to the fuel type that’s used by road vehicles (cars, trucks, buses, vans, and the like) that are powered by DIESEL engines. That is, in a word, it is the diesel vehicle engine fuel. In terms of how the fuel gets to be produced or manufactured, the fuel is the type that, in the distillation and processing of crude oil work, is obtained in the mid-boiling range of that process. Related fuels which are used for non-road applications including off-road diesel engines, such as the Industrial Gas Oils (IGOs), are obtained from the same ‘fraction’ of the crude oil barrel.

Technically speaking, the term Automotive Gas Oil (AGO) is the technical name used by the oil industry in describing this particular fuel. However, in terms of the ordinary consumers in the market, the term ‘automotive diesel fuel,’ or just plain ‘diesel,’ is the more commonly used and more widespread name that the ordinary consumer uses in describing this fuel. Petroleum products are usually grouped into THREE categories: the ‘light distillates’ (LPG, gasoline, naphtha), the ‘middle’ distillates (kerosene, diesel), and the ‘heavy’ distillates and residuum (heavy fuel oil, lubricating oils, wax, asphalt). This classification is based primarily on the way crude oil is distilled and separated into fractions (called distillates and residuum). Within the oil industry, the generic oil industry name that’s used to describe gasoils – which include both AGO and IGO – fall under the ‘Middle Distillates’ category, meaning those kinds of refined oil products whose ‘boiling range’ fall in the MIDDLE, that is, between those whose range fall in the higher levels or in the lower levels. (See the Chart below). As you can readily see in the Chart below, at a Boiling Range of between 520 to 650, the AGO falls right in the middle range of most categories of the refined oil products.

The Market & Primary Uses of the AGO oil Product Among Its Customers

AGO is used in two main types of vehicles: 1) the heavy-duty vehicles, such as trucks and buses, and 2) the light-duty vehicles, such as vans and passenger cars. In most countries, including the USA as well as the developing countries, the heavy-duty vehicles make up the bulk of the market for AGO. In a country such as Japan, there is a significant light-duty vehicle sector, but it is in Europe that the demand for AGO from this sector is highest, with more than one-third coming from the passenger cars and other light vehicles. Customer requirements between the two types of fuel usage differ to some extent. Diesel engines are widely used in heavy-duty vehicles. Such vehicles are frequently operated in fleets and are re-fuelled centrally with the fuel delivered directly from the supplier. In the light-duty vehicle sector, recent advances in engine design now also allow light-duty diesel engines to compete with gasoline engines in terms of the performance standards. Light-duty vehicles are generally re-fuelled through retail outlets. In any case, whether it is in the light-duty sector or in the heavy-duty sector, in both sectors the customer will generally be looking for the fuel that provides economy, power, reliability and environmental acceptability.

Use As Car Fuel

Diesel-powered vehicles, such as AGO-powered vehicles, generally have a better fuel economy than equivalent gasoline engines and produce less greenhouse gas emission. Their greater economy is due to the higher energy per-liter content of diesel fuel and the intrinsic efficiency of the diesel engine. True, petrodiesel’s higher density results in higher greenhouse gas emissions per liter compared to gasoline. However, the modern diesel-engine automobiles have a 20-40% better fuel economy, and this well offsets the higher per-liter emissions of greenhouse gases, while a diesel-powered vehicle emits 10-20 percent less greenhouse gas than comparable gasoline vehicles. Biodiesel-powered diesel engines offer substantially improved emission reductions compared to petrodiesel or gasoline-powered engines, while retaining most of the fuel economy advantages over conventional gasoline-powered automobiles.

How Crude Oil Fractions Are Processed Into Refined Oil Products, Including AGO and Other Products

How do we get to have refined petroleum products, of which a product like AGO is one? Put simply, it is out of the refinery processing (i.e., out of the ‘refining’) of crude oil that many other usable products – products that we generally refer to as refined or finished petroleum products – are produced. Meaning products such as gasoil, gasoline, kerosene, AGO, etc. The process of oil ‘refining’ or processing is a very complex one, and involves both chemical reactions and physical separations. The substance that’s called Crude Oil is composed of thousands of different ‘molecules,’ and according to chemical engineers and molecular experts, it would be nearly impossible to isolate every molecule that exists in crude oil and thereby make finished products from each molecule.

Consequently, the way chemists and engineers deal with this problem, is simply by them isolating the mixtures (also called ‘fractions’) of molecules according to what is known as the mixture’s “boiling point range.” For example, molecules for the gasoline product might boil within the ‘range’ of from 90 to 400 oF. While the range at which the home heating oil product’s molecular mixes could boil might be from 500 to 650 oF, and so on. For purposes of convenience and simplification, each mixture or fraction is assigned a specific name to identify it.

The following chart illustrates the ‘boiling range’ and name of the petroleum fractions.

Fraction

Boiling Range,oF.

Butanes and lighter

<90

Light straight run gasoline (LSR)

or light naphtha (LN)

90-190

Naphtha or heavy naphtha (HN)

190-380

Kerosene

380-520

Distillate or atmospheric gas oil (AGO)

520-650

Residua

650 +

Vacuum gas oil (VGO)

650-1000

Vacuum Residua

1000 +

In sum, refined products are products that are produced by isolating the mixtures or fractions of molecules that come from the raw crude oil, and combining them, along with those from various refinery processing units. These fractions are ‘blended’ or mixed to satisfy specific properties that are important in allowing the refined product to perform in accordance with the specifications or requirements that are designed by or in an engine, in terms of ease in handling, reducing the undesirable emissions produced when the product is burned, etc

FINDING OR OBTAINING A SUPPLY OF THE AGO

Simply stated, the KEY term and task here is finding an authentic AGO oil product supply or supplier. Or an AGO buyer, as the case may be. Why? This is simply because, today, in the international refined oil products trading market, specially in the so-called “secondary” market, probably the single most fundamental and most difficult common problem which legitimate dealers who seek to find reliable suppliers have, is often NOT so much finding a party who will claim heaven and earth that he/she has the AGO oil product to sell and can supply you the product. Or that he can buy one from you, as the case may be. BUT finding such a party who is actually AUTHENTIC & LEGITIMATE, and can actually DELIVER on the product.

MOST PEOPLE WHO SAY THEY’RE SUPPLIERS OF PRODUCT PROVIDE NO VERIFIED OR VERIFIABLE PROOFS OR SOURCES

A well-established reality and a given today, is that in world oil deals involving trading in the crude oil and refined petroleum products, specially in the so-called international “secondary” market, probably the single most fundamental and most difficult common problem which legitimate buyers frequently confront today, is the problem of the genuineness and authenticity of the supplier of product and his ability to deliver on the sales offer he presents. Refined petroleum products, such as AGO, D2, Mazut, Jet fuel, etc., are certainly not immune or exempt from such endemic problem that seems to plague the entire secondary market oil trade industry, but rather are, in deed, right in the middle of it.

It’s a problem whose central source can simply be summed up in one word – namely, that not unlike most persons or entities who claim via the Internet to be oil or petroleum products suppliers or “sellers,” most who claim to be suppliers of AGO, as well (or of similar refined oil products, such as the diesel gasoil or Russian D2, Mazut, Jet fuels, and the like), either provide NO proofs or evidence at all of that, or provide proofs or evidence that are often absolutely meaningless because they’re unverified and unverifiable. That is, for the serious or credible Internet petroleum buyer involved in the world oil deals and seriously intent on finding duly verifiable authentic AGO oil product supply or supplier, there are generally just NO such supply or suppliers of the product in the so-called “secondary” market.

Most such serious or genuine AGO buyers (or suppliers, as well, as the case may be) seeking to find equally genuine AGO suppliers (or sellers seeking buyers, when applicable) in the international secondary market, find that the problem is particularly acute and compounded by the fact that almost all “sellers” (or suppliers), or their brokers or intermediaries, that one meets on the Internet, are essentially unknown, unestablished dealers who lack any name, reputation or identity, or any known location on the planet, and lack any record or history of past performance in doing the business. In consequence, a serious AGO buyer, for example, is often being asked – and actually being realistically expected – to, in effect, merely take “the word” of some dubious, anonymous, unidentified and apparently unidentifiable, phantom “seller” or “supplier” for it, with no credible supporting evidence provided, and no verification or authentication whatsoever of the Internet seller’s offer or claims.

In sum, he’s being asked – and actually being expected – to risk, or, rather, to gamble away, his hard-earned mini-fortune of some hundreds of millions of dollars merely on such a “word.”! This, it should be added, is being expected of the buyer in a business environment and climate that is patently awash in fraud and a network of notorious scammers worldwide!

WHERE TO BUY AGO OIL PRODUCT, HOW DO YOU FIND THE SUPPLIERS?

Clearly, then, if you are a real buyer of product seriously intent on finding authentic diesel AGO oil product supply or suppliers (or those of any similar refined oil products, such as the diesel gasoil or Russian D2, Mazut, Jet fuels, and the like) – meaning one that is duly verified and verifiable – probably the most critical, vital, even life-or-death task for you, is that you had better be sure to develop, in some way or manner, a skilled and effective strategy for finding, vetting, selecting out and authenticated suppliers that can provide you reliable steady supply of the product, and which will be scam-free, assured, and long-lasting.

How?

Quite oddly enough, the answer to that question is actually not that complicated or complex. For our limited purposes here, suffice it simply to just say, that there is, in fact, such a methodology, tool and strategy for doing just that long in practical use in the industry. Long in practical use by knowledgeable, experienced and trained eyes and experts, and the successful traders, in the business. If you are, yourself, in fact a provable legitimate trader or authentic practitioner of the petroleum trade (assuming you are actually one) operating in the secondary market, and are truly serious about finding and securing authentic and reliable AGO oil product supply or supplier, or about finding and securing a buyer of equivalent caliber for the product, as the case may be, that’s actually readily within your reach. There’s just really one crucial proviso, only – namely, PROVIDING that you’re equipped with the requisite knowledge, skill, training, tool, methodology and practical experience, by which to undertake the whole process of doing so.

To be sure, true, in today’s world oil deals of the international secondary market, including sourcing for AGO product, which is largely an Internet-dominated world, and is for the most part prevalently awash in fake dealers and scammers, finding duly verified authentic petroleum or automotive gas oil product supply, suppliers and sellers of such caliber (or buyers, just as well), is not ordinary or commonplace. Nor is it at all an easy task to attain. It is, however, by no means impracticable, nor are such suppliers non-existent. Far, far from it! Quite to the contrary, such suppliers abound. It’s only that you just have to search around for such suppliers (or the legitimate buyers, as well, as the case may be) more diligently and skillfully and in the right places from the right sources, and know precisely how and where. That requires, unavoidably, supreme industry knowledge, skills set, training, know-how, connections, precious time expenditure, and experience.

FOR A FOLLOW UP

YOU WANT TO FOLLOW UP ON HOW TO FIND AUTHENTIC AGO OIL PRODUCT SUPPLY OR SUPPLIERS, OR EVEN BUYERS, THAT ARE ALREADY VERIFIED, CONFIRMED AND VERIFIABLE AND SCAM-FREE? Please see the link provided in the author’s Resource Box below.

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How Significant Car Insurance Quotes Are

Planning to buy car insurance is really just easy but the situation is how to select the correct company. Some people have no single idea regarding how to do it while some are simply confused on which among the businesses should they go for. A lot of companies are there too which provides assorted interest rates. So the smartest thing to accomplish here is to collect lots of auto insurance quotes so it is also possible to match them. This way, choosing probably the most perfect insurance policy for the car could be done smoothly.

The best venue for clients get started on with these auto insurance quotes is nowhere else than the internet. A lot of insurance firms have created their websites which give and explains important information that revolves around their insurance policies. In order that you can lessen the doubts, you need to visit online companies that have reigned success for consecutive years. It is vital to choose those who have gained popularity and whose reliability will not disappoint you. Definitely they really are the safest and most perfect choices for auto insurance.

Once you visit their websites, it is also possible to come upon a web based insurance quote form that you are required to fill out in order that getting your quote from the company will likely be done. All you should do would be to type in some essential information that talks about yourself such us your name, address, etc. Right after filling out the form, the auto insurance quote will show up in a blink.

Aside from making use of the internet to know your auto insurance quotes, it is also possible to get them through approaching a good car insurance company. This step obviously requires you to exert effort making sure that requesting for the quote shall be done. Just exactly the same as what you are likely to do in the internet, you are likely to fill out a vehicle insurance quote form and supply some basic information. You will receive your quote once the company will post it. However, gathering car insurance quotes with the use of such step is indeed time consuming and you may not have the capacity to gather a lot. That is the main reason why the majority prefer to go online as compared with exerting too much effort without even getting assured.

You have to be aware of that vehicle insurance policies are not guaranteed by any auto insurance quotes. It only provides the chance to get an estimate with regards the car insurance policy. Gathering quotes gives you the chance to check them and you are required to select the very best among the businesses which provide the best interest rates.

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Paintless Dent Repair: Myths and Facts About Car Dent Repair and Insurance

The long arm of car repair insurance does not stop at extended warranties or tire road hazard insurance. Marketing gurus have found all sorts of knick knacks to insure. Among the top are ding and dent protection plans. Ding and dent insurance is growing steadily, and addresses those unsightly shopping cart and parking lot dings.

Dings and dents are fairly synonymous terms, although a ding is smaller than a dent. You'll notice a dent. You'll need to squint, or catch the vehicle in the right angle or sunlight to see a ding. Some dings are smaller than eraser heads.

Like extended warranties or tire insurance, dent and ding protection plans promise to pay for damages in part or in full for a specific period of time. These plans are primarily sold by new car dealerships and cost a few hundred dollars.

Ding and Dent Repair: Paintless Dent Repair

Ding and dent repair is called PDR, short for Paintless Dent Repair. There are many companies that perform this service: Ding Doctor, Ding King, No Dents, Dent Wizard … the list goes on. Some are better then others, although it is up to the skill of the PDR technician. Prices are similar.

How is it done?

Most PDR techniques are non-intrusive. The PDR technicians use specifically designed tools and gadgets to slip behind the damaged panels and manipulate and massage the damaged metal back to its original form.

Does it work?

Actually, it's incredible! It works so well that in the majority of cases the dings and dents are completely removed. They're invisible, gone, can't-believe-your-eyes fixed.

I saw a soccer-ball-sized dent removed from the rear fender of a $ 120,000 car. The dent also had a large crease, which makes repairs even harder. After thirty minutes there was no visible detection that a dent was ever there. The repair cost the client $ 400. Traditional body shop estimates were hovering at $ 2700.

PDR positives

  • Very low cost compared to traditional body shops
  • Same day repairs – even while-you-wait service
  • No paint work, sanding, or traditional bodywork required
  • Original paint remains – helps retain vehicles looks and value
  • Body panels remain intact – maintaining structural integrity

PDR negatives

  • PDR does not address scratches or paint chips that are often associated with dings (Many PDR companies will address chips and scratches, but it's not PDR technology)
  • Many areas of body panels are not accessible, so PDR is not an option
  • Plastic bumpers or any plastic components can not be fixed with PDR techniques. Since the bumper is the most common area to get damaged, this is a significant downside of PDR technology.
  • Some damage can occur to door panels, paint, interiors, window glass and hardware, although damage of any kind is rare.

Do you need PDR insurance?

God, no!

Should you get your dings fixed using PDR techniques?

Hell, yes!

Let me explain …

Insuring against dings and dents does not make economic sense. Ding repairs average around $ 50 per ding. Some dings cost $ 99 to $ 149 to repair. Two to four dings can run $ 100 to $ 450, depending on the size of the dent. Insurance at this level is just not necessary. Moreover, it's a gamble you will lose.

To benefit from a $ 300, two-year plan, your vehicle would need to sustain multiple "PDR repairable" dings or dents. After your coverage, you may not even notice the dings, making a claim impossible. Also, despite the amazing PDR techniques, they can not fix everything, especially the chips and scratches that so frequently accompanies a ding – should dings even occur.

Yes, get your dings fixed with PDR (if they're bothering you), but do not buy an insurance plan.

Protection plan economics 101

An article by Terence O'Hara in the Washington Post is a wonderful piece on the insanity of protection plans, and is applicable here. He writes:

The decision to buy an extended warranty … defies the recommendations of economists, consumer advocates and product quality experts, who all warn that the plans rarely benefit consumers and are almost always a waste of money.

'[Extended warranties and protection plans] make no rational sense,' Harvard economist David Cutler said. 'The implied probability [of an issue] has to be substantially greater than the risk that you can not afford to fix it or replace it. If you're buying a $ 400 item, for the overwhelming number of consumers that level of spending is not a risk you need to insure under any circumstances. '

… extended warranties play upon a basic human trait to avoid loss, even if it means sacrificing a possible future gain. In this case, the gain is all the other things of value that a consumer could buy with the money that was spent on a warranty

Fix your dings

Fix your dings and dents (if you want) as they come – maybe every spring. Fixing dings keeps your car looking pristine, and increases its value. But do not bother with a protection plan. Save your money.

Hold off on that paint job

Quality paintless dent repair is often a great substitute for those considering full paint jobs. Whenever possible, it's best to keep the original paint. Good PDR combined with a professional detail can restore vehicles to show room condition for less than $ 500.

Go with the best

Since 1983 Dent Wizard has been pioneering PDR technology. Their PDR technicians undergo intensive and ongoing training. The rates are reasonable and the quality is excellent. Always request a master PDR technician, as there are various levels of abilities.

Check with local dealers

Dealerships in your area may offer Dent Wizard. Your vehicle does not have to be of the same make as the dealership. In other words, you can bring your Chevy to a Ford dealer for PDR work.

Myths

Do it yourself paintless dent repair is easy.

No it 's not. It requires training, skill, and experience. There are many who practice PDR techniques who crack or flake the paint, or who create ripples in the metal.

The PDR products sold on TV do the same thing.

No! Not even close. There's no good substitute for the art of PDR.

Scratch and dent repair are the same thing.

No. A ding is a small dent, which can often be repaired via paintless dent repair procedures. A scratch is an actual break in the surface of the clear coat or paint, requiring traditional body shop techniques, or touch up paint.

It's easy to learn how to repair dents on cars.

Maybe for some, but it's a skill that few master . Dent Wizard offers a great training program. The management and staff are top notch.

What's the best car dent removal protection plan?

Money in your bank account!

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